## Summary

Data mining and machine learning approaches can be incorporated into business intelligence (BI) systems to help users for decision support in many real-life applications. Here, in this paper, we propose a machine learning approach for BI applications. Specifically, we apply structural support vector machines (SSVMs) to perform classification on complex inputs such as the nodes of a graph structure. ** We evaluate Canadian Pacific Railway Limited prediction models with Inductive Learning (ML) and Paired T-Test ^{1,2,3,4} and conclude that the CP:TSX stock is predictable in the short/long term. **

**According to price forecasts for (n+16 weeks) period: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Sell CP:TSX stock.**

## Key Points

- Investment Risk
- What are buy sell or hold recommendations?
- Decision Making

## CP:TSX Target Price Prediction Modeling Methodology

We consider Canadian Pacific Railway Limited Decision Process with Inductive Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of CP:TSX stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.^{1,2,3,4}

F(Paired T-Test)

^{5,6,7}= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{\mathrm{a}1}& {p}_{\mathrm{a}2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Inductive Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ (n+16 weeks) $\overrightarrow{R}=\left({r}_{1},{r}_{2},{r}_{3}\right)$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of CP:TSX stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move

a:Best response for target price

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

## CP:TSX Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) for (n+16 weeks)

**Sample Set:**Neural Network

**Stock/Index:**CP:TSX Canadian Pacific Railway Limited

**Time series to forecast n: 02 Dec 2022**for (n+16 weeks)

**According to price forecasts for (n+16 weeks) period: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Sell CP:TSX stock.**

**X axis: *Likelihood%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

**Y axis: *Potential Impact%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

**Z axis (Yellow to Green): *Technical Analysis%**

## Adjusted IFRS* Prediction Methods for Canadian Pacific Railway Limited

- An entity shall apply the impairment requirements in Section 5.5 retrospectively in accordance with IAS 8 subject to paragraphs 7.2.15 and 7.2.18–7.2.20.
- In some circumstances, the renegotiation or modification of the contractual cash flows of a financial asset can lead to the derecognition of the existing financial asset in accordance with this Standard. When the modification of a financial asset results in the derecognition of the existing financial asset and the subsequent recognition of the modified financial asset, the modified asset is considered a 'new' financial asset for the purposes of this Standard.
- If an entity measures a hybrid contract at fair value in accordance with paragraphs 4.1.2A, 4.1.4 or 4.1.5 but the fair value of the hybrid contract had not been measured in comparative reporting periods, the fair value of the hybrid contract in the comparative reporting periods shall be the sum of the fair values of the components (ie the non-derivative host and the embedded derivative) at the end of each comparative reporting period if the entity restates prior periods (see paragraph 7.2.15).
- An alternative benchmark rate designated as a non-contractually specified risk component that is not separately identifiable (see paragraphs 6.3.7(a) and B6.3.8) at the date it is designated shall be deemed to have met that requirement at that date, if, and only if, the entity reasonably expects the alternative benchmark rate will be separately identifiable within 24 months. The 24-month period applies to each alternative benchmark rate separately and starts from the date the entity designates the alternative benchmark rate as a non-contractually specified risk component for the first time (ie the 24- month period applies on a rate-by-rate basis).

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are a set of accounting rules for the financial statements of public companies that are intended to make them consistent, transparent, and easily comparable around the world.

## Conclusions

Canadian Pacific Railway Limited assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term B1 forecasted stock rating.** We evaluate the prediction models Inductive Learning (ML) with Paired T-Test ^{1,2,3,4} and conclude that the CP:TSX stock is predictable in the short/long term.**

**According to price forecasts for (n+16 weeks) period: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Sell CP:TSX stock.**

### Financial State Forecast for CP:TSX Canadian Pacific Railway Limited Options & Futures

Rating | Short-Term | Long-Term Senior |
---|---|---|

Outlook* | Ba3 | B1 |

Operational Risk | 66 | 60 |

Market Risk | 82 | 51 |

Technical Analysis | 49 | 45 |

Fundamental Analysis | 82 | 75 |

Risk Unsystematic | 37 | 46 |

### Prediction Confidence Score

## References

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- Belloni A, Chernozhukov V, Hansen C. 2014. High-dimensional methods and inference on structural and treatment effects. J. Econ. Perspect. 28:29–50
- A. Tamar, D. Di Castro, and S. Mannor. Policy gradients with variance related risk criteria. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Conference on Machine Learning, pages 387–396, 2012.
- Robins J, Rotnitzky A. 1995. Semiparametric efficiency in multivariate regression models with missing data. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90:122–29
- Bera, A. M. L. Higgins (1997), "ARCH and bilinearity as competing models for nonlinear dependence," Journal of Business Economic Statistics, 15, 43–50.

## Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the prediction methodology for CP:TSX stock?A: CP:TSX stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Inductive Learning (ML) and Paired T-Test

Q: Is CP:TSX stock a buy or sell?

A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Sell CP:TSX Stock.

Q: Is Canadian Pacific Railway Limited stock a good investment?

A: The consensus rating for Canadian Pacific Railway Limited is Sell and assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term B1 forecasted stock rating.

Q: What is the consensus rating of CP:TSX stock?

A: The consensus rating for CP:TSX is Sell.

Q: What is the prediction period for CP:TSX stock?

A: The prediction period for CP:TSX is (n+16 weeks)

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