## Abstract

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**Outlook:**AVIVA PLC assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba3 forecasted stock rating.

**Signal:**Buy

**Time series to forecast n: 06 Dec 2022**for (n+3 month)

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This paper addresses problem of predicting direction of movement of stock and stock price index. The study compares four prediction models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), random forest and naive-Bayes with two approaches for input to these models.(Nikou, M., Mansourfar, G. and Bagherzadeh, J., 2019. Stock price prediction using DEEP learning algorithm and its comparison with machine learning algorithms. Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, 26(4), pp.164-174.)** We evaluate AVIVA PLC prediction models with Ensemble Learning (ML) and Spearman Correlation ^{1,2,3,4} and conclude that the LON:AV.B stock is predictable in the short/long term. **

**According to price forecasts for (n+3 month) period: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Buy LON:AV.B stock.**

## Key Points

- Buy, Sell and Hold Signals
- Trading Interaction
- Decision Making

## LON:AV.B Target Price Prediction Modeling Methodology

We consider AVIVA PLC Decision Process with Ensemble Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of LON:AV.B stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.^{1,2,3,4}

F(Spearman Correlation)

^{5,6,7}= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{\mathrm{a}1}& {p}_{\mathrm{a}2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Ensemble Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ (n+3 month) $\overrightarrow{S}=\left({s}_{1},{s}_{2},{s}_{3}\right)$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of LON:AV.B stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move

a:Best response for target price

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

## LON:AV.B Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) for (n+3 month)

**Sample Set:**Neural Network

**Stock/Index:**LON:AV.B AVIVA PLC

**Time series to forecast n: 06 Dec 2022**for (n+3 month)

**According to price forecasts for (n+3 month) period: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Buy LON:AV.B stock.**

**X axis: *Likelihood%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

**Y axis: *Potential Impact%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

**Z axis (Yellow to Green): *Technical Analysis%**

## Adjusted IFRS* Prediction Methods for AVIVA PLC

- Leverage is a contractual cash flow characteristic of some financial assets. Leverage increases the variability of the contractual cash flows with the result that they do not have the economic characteristics of interest. Stand-alone option, forward and swap contracts are examples of financial assets that include such leverage. Thus, such contracts do not meet the condition in paragraphs 4.1.2(b) and 4.1.2A(b) and cannot be subsequently measured at amortised cost or fair value through other comprehensive income.
- If such a mismatch would be created or enlarged, the entity is required to present all changes in fair value (including the effects of changes in the credit risk of the liability) in profit or loss. If such a mismatch would not be created or enlarged, the entity is required to present the effects of changes in the liability's credit risk in other comprehensive income.
- IFRS 7 defines credit risk as 'the risk that one party to a financial instrument will cause a financial loss for the other party by failing to discharge an obligation'. The requirement in paragraph 5.7.7(a) relates to the risk that the issuer will fail to perform on that particular liability. It does not necessarily relate to the creditworthiness of the issuer. For example, if an entity issues a collateralised liability and a non-collateralised liability that are otherwise identical, the credit risk of those two liabilities will be different, even though they are issued by the same entity. The credit risk on the collateralised liability will be less than the credit risk of the non-collateralised liability. The credit risk for a collateralised liability may be close to zero.
- A contractually specified inflation risk component of the cash flows of a recognised inflation-linked bond (assuming that there is no requirement to account for an embedded derivative separately) is separately identifiable and reliably measurable, as long as other cash flows of the instrument are not affected by the inflation risk component.

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are a set of accounting rules for the financial statements of public companies that are intended to make them consistent, transparent, and easily comparable around the world.

## Conclusions

AVIVA PLC assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba3 forecasted stock rating.** We evaluate the prediction models Ensemble Learning (ML) with Spearman Correlation ^{1,2,3,4} and conclude that the LON:AV.B stock is predictable in the short/long term.**

**According to price forecasts for (n+3 month) period: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Buy LON:AV.B stock.**

### Financial State Forecast for LON:AV.B AVIVA PLC Options & Futures

Rating | Short-Term | Long-Term Senior |
---|---|---|

Outlook* | B2 | Ba3 |

Operational Risk | 35 | 85 |

Market Risk | 81 | 57 |

Technical Analysis | 45 | 69 |

Fundamental Analysis | 30 | 53 |

Risk Unsystematic | 71 | 57 |

### Prediction Confidence Score

## References

- Li L, Chen S, Kleban J, Gupta A. 2014. Counterfactual estimation and optimization of click metrics for search engines: a case study. In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on the World Wide Web, pp. 929–34. New York: ACM
- Clements, M. P. D. F. Hendry (1996), "Intercept corrections and structural change," Journal of Applied Econometrics, 11, 475–494.
- A. Y. Ng, D. Harada, and S. J. Russell. Policy invariance under reward transformations: Theory and application to reward shaping. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 1999), Bled, Slovenia, June 27 - 30, 1999, pages 278–287, 1999.
- M. Colby, T. Duchow-Pressley, J. J. Chung, and K. Tumer. Local approximation of difference evaluation functions. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Singapore, May 2016
- Semenova V, Goldman M, Chernozhukov V, Taddy M. 2018. Orthogonal ML for demand estimation: high dimensional causal inference in dynamic panels. arXiv:1712.09988 [stat.ML]
- Blei DM, Lafferty JD. 2009. Topic models. In Text Mining: Classification, Clustering, and Applications, ed. A Srivastava, M Sahami, pp. 101–24. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
- Semenova V, Goldman M, Chernozhukov V, Taddy M. 2018. Orthogonal ML for demand estimation: high dimensional causal inference in dynamic panels. arXiv:1712.09988 [stat.ML]

## Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the prediction methodology for LON:AV.B stock?A: LON:AV.B stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Ensemble Learning (ML) and Spearman Correlation

Q: Is LON:AV.B stock a buy or sell?

A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Buy LON:AV.B Stock.

Q: Is AVIVA PLC stock a good investment?

A: The consensus rating for AVIVA PLC is Buy and assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba3 forecasted stock rating.

Q: What is the consensus rating of LON:AV.B stock?

A: The consensus rating for LON:AV.B is Buy.

Q: What is the prediction period for LON:AV.B stock?

A: The prediction period for LON:AV.B is (n+3 month)

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