Outlook: PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y is assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba1 estimated rating.
Dominant Strategy : Hold
Time series to forecast n: 24 Jun 2023 for 16 Weeks
Methodology : Multi-Instance Learning (ML)

## Summary

PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y prediction model is evaluated with Multi-Instance Learning (ML) and Polynomial Regression1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the PSB^Y stock is predictable in the short/long term. Multi-instance learning (MIL) is a machine learning (ML) problem where a dataset consists of multiple instances, and each instance is associated with a single label. The goal of MIL is to learn a model that can predict the label of a new instance based on the labels of the instances that it is similar to. MIL is a challenging problem because the instances in a dataset are not labeled individually. This means that the model cannot simply learn a mapping from the features of an instance to its label. Instead, the model must learn a way to combine the features of multiple instances to predict the label of a new instance. According to price forecasts for 16 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold

## Key Points

1. Is Target price a good indicator?
2. Understanding Buy, Sell, and Hold Ratings
3. Fundemental Analysis with Algorithmic Trading

## PSB^Y Target Price Prediction Modeling Methodology

We consider PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y Decision Process with Multi-Instance Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of PSB^Y stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.1,2,3,4

F(Polynomial Regression)5,6,7= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{a1}& {p}_{a2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Multi-Instance Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ 16 Weeks $∑ i = 1 n r i$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of PSB^Y stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move

a:Best response for target price

### Multi-Instance Learning (ML)

Multi-instance learning (MIL) is a machine learning (ML) problem where a dataset consists of multiple instances, and each instance is associated with a single label. The goal of MIL is to learn a model that can predict the label of a new instance based on the labels of the instances that it is similar to. MIL is a challenging problem because the instances in a dataset are not labeled individually. This means that the model cannot simply learn a mapping from the features of an instance to its label. Instead, the model must learn a way to combine the features of multiple instances to predict the label of a new instance.

### Polynomial Regression

Polynomial regression is a type of regression analysis that uses a polynomial function to model the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. Polynomial functions are mathematical functions that have a polynomial term, which is a term that is raised to a power greater than 1. In polynomial regression, the dependent variable is modeled as a polynomial function of the independent variables. The degree of the polynomial function is determined by the researcher. The higher the degree of the polynomial function, the more complex the model will be.

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

## PSB^Y Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) for 16 Weeks

Sample Set: Neural Network
Stock/Index: PSB^Y PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y
Time series to forecast n: 24 Jun 2023 for 16 Weeks

According to price forecasts for 16 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold

X axis: *Likelihood% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

Y axis: *Potential Impact% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%

## IFRS Reconciliation Adjustments for PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y

1. In accordance with paragraph 4.1.3(a), principal is the fair value of the financial asset at initial recognition. However that principal amount may change over the life of the financial asset (for example, if there are repayments of principal).
2. Sales that occur for other reasons, such as sales made to manage credit concentration risk (without an increase in the assets' credit risk), may also be consistent with a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows. In particular, such sales may be consistent with a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows if those sales are infrequent (even if significant in value) or insignificant in value both individually and in aggregate (even if frequent). If more than an infrequent number of such sales are made out of a portfolio and those sales are more than insignificant in value (either individually or in aggregate), the entity needs to assess whether and how such sales are consistent with an objective of collecting contractual cash flows. Whether a third party imposes the requirement to sell the financial assets, or that activity is at the entity's discretion, is not relevant to this assessment. An increase in the frequency or value of sales in a particular period is not necessarily inconsistent with an objective to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows, if an entity can explain the reasons for those sales and demonstrate why those sales do not reflect a change in the entity's business model. In addition, sales may be consistent with the objective of holding financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows if the sales are made close to the maturity of the financial assets and the proceeds from the sales approximate the collection of the remaining contractual cash flows.
3. An entity shall apply the amendments to IFRS 9 made by IFRS 17 as amended in June 2020 retrospectively in accordance with IAS 8, except as specified in paragraphs 7.2.37–7.2.42.
4. In some cases, the qualitative and non-statistical quantitative information available may be sufficient to determine that a financial instrument has met the criterion for the recognition of a loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That is, the information does not need to flow through a statistical model or credit ratings process in order to determine whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk of the financial instrument. In other cases, an entity may need to consider other information, including information from its statistical models or credit ratings processes.

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

## Conclusions

PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y is assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba1 estimated rating. PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y prediction model is evaluated with Multi-Instance Learning (ML) and Polynomial Regression1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the PSB^Y stock is predictable in the short/long term. According to price forecasts for 16 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold

### PSB^Y PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y Financial Analysis*

Rating Short-Term Long-Term Senior
Outlook*B2Ba1
Income StatementCaa2Baa2
Balance SheetBaa2Baa2
Leverage RatiosB1B1
Cash FlowB3Baa2
Rates of Return and ProfitabilityCC

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.
How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

### Prediction Confidence Score

Trust metric by Neural Network: 82 out of 100 with 645 signals.

## References

1. Çetinkaya, A., Zhang, Y.Z., Hao, Y.M. and Ma, X.Y., GXO Options & Futures Prediction. AC Investment Research Journal, 101(3).
2. Barrett, C. B. (1997), "Heteroscedastic price forecasting for food security management in developing countries," Oxford Development Studies, 25, 225–236.
3. Scholkopf B, Smola AJ. 2001. Learning with Kernels: Support Vector Machines, Regularization, Optimization, and Beyond. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
4. E. van der Pol and F. A. Oliehoek. Coordinated deep reinforcement learners for traffic light control. NIPS Workshop on Learning, Inference and Control of Multi-Agent Systems, 2016.
5. Künzel S, Sekhon J, Bickel P, Yu B. 2017. Meta-learners for estimating heterogeneous treatment effects using machine learning. arXiv:1706.03461 [math.ST]
6. L. Prashanth and M. Ghavamzadeh. Actor-critic algorithms for risk-sensitive MDPs. In Proceedings of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26, pages 252–260, 2013.
7. Chernozhukov V, Escanciano JC, Ichimura H, Newey WK. 2016b. Locally robust semiparametric estimation. arXiv:1608.00033 [math.ST]
Frequently Asked QuestionsQ: What is the prediction methodology for PSB^Y stock?
A: PSB^Y stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Multi-Instance Learning (ML) and Polynomial Regression
Q: Is PSB^Y stock a buy or sell?
A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Hold PSB^Y Stock.
Q: Is PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y stock a good investment?
A: The consensus rating for PS Business Parks Inc. 5.20% Cumulative Preferred Stock Series Y is Hold and is assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba1 estimated rating.
Q: What is the consensus rating of PSB^Y stock?
A: The consensus rating for PSB^Y is Hold.
Q: What is the prediction period for PSB^Y stock?
A: The prediction period for PSB^Y is 16 Weeks