**Outlook:**HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC is assigned short-term Ba1 & long-term Ba1 estimated rating.

**Dominant Strategy :**Sell

**Time series to forecast n: 20 Jun 2023**for 6 Month

**Methodology :**Statistical Inference (ML)

## Summary

HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC prediction model is evaluated with Statistical Inference (ML) and ElasticNet Regression^{1,2,3,4}and it is concluded that the LON:HL. stock is predictable in the short/long term. Statistical inference is a process of drawing conclusions about a population based on data from a sample of that population. In machine learning (ML), statistical inference is used to make predictions about new data based on data that has already been seen.

**According to price forecasts for 6 Month period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell**

## Key Points

- Game Theory
- Can neural networks predict stock market?
- What is Markov decision process in reinforcement learning?

## LON:HL. Target Price Prediction Modeling Methodology

We consider HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC Decision Process with Statistical Inference (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of LON:HL. stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.^{1,2,3,4}

F(ElasticNet Regression)

^{5,6,7}= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{\mathrm{a}1}& {p}_{\mathrm{a}2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Statistical Inference (ML)) X S(n):→ 6 Month $\sum _{i=1}^{n}\left({r}_{i}\right)$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of LON:HL. stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move

a:Best response for target price

### Statistical Inference (ML)

Statistical inference is a process of drawing conclusions about a population based on data from a sample of that population. In machine learning (ML), statistical inference is used to make predictions about new data based on data that has already been seen.### ElasticNet Regression

Elastic net regression is a type of regression analysis that combines the benefits of ridge regression and lasso regression. It is a regularized regression method that adds a penalty to the least squares objective function in order to reduce the variance of the estimates, induce sparsity in the model, and reduce overfitting. This is done by adding a term to the objective function that is proportional to the sum of the squares of the coefficients and the sum of the absolute values of the coefficients. The penalty terms are controlled by two parameters, called the ridge constant and the lasso constant. Elastic net regression can be used to address the problems of multicollinearity, overfitting, and sensitivity to outliers. It is a more flexible method than ridge regression or lasso regression, and it can often achieve better results.

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

## LON:HL. Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) for 6 Month

**Sample Set:**Neural Network

**Stock/Index:**LON:HL. HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC

**Time series to forecast n: 20 Jun 2023**for 6 Month

**According to price forecasts for 6 Month period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell**

**X axis: *Likelihood%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

**Y axis: *Potential Impact%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

**Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%**

## IFRS Reconciliation Adjustments for HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC

- An entity need not undertake an exhaustive search for information but shall consider all reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort and that is relevant to the estimate of expected credit losses, including the effect of expected prepayments. The information used shall include factors that are specific to the borrower, general economic conditions and an assessment of both the current as well as the forecast direction of conditions at the reporting date. An entity may use various sources of data, that may be both internal (entity-specific) and external. Possible data sources include internal historical credit loss experience, internal ratings, credit loss experience of other entities and external ratings, reports and statistics. Entities that have no, or insufficient, sources of entityspecific data may use peer group experience for the comparable financial instrument (or groups of financial instruments).
- The business model may be to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows even if the entity sells financial assets when there is an increase in the assets' credit risk. To determine whether there has been an increase in the assets' credit risk, the entity considers reasonable and supportable information, including forward looking information. Irrespective of their frequency and value, sales due to an increase in the assets' credit risk are not inconsistent with a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets to collect contractual cash flows because the credit quality of financial assets is relevant to the entity's ability to collect contractual cash flows. Credit risk management activities that are aimed at minimising potential credit losses due to credit deterioration are integral to such a business model. Selling a financial asset because it no longer meets the credit criteria specified in the entity's documented investment policy is an example of a sale that has occurred due to an increase in credit risk. However, in the absence of such a policy, the entity may demonstrate in other ways that the sale occurred due to an increase in credit risk.
- At the date of initial application, an entity shall determine whether the treatment in paragraph 5.7.7 would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of initial application. This Standard shall be applied retrospectively on the basis of that determination.
- A layer component that includes a prepayment option is not eligible to be designated as a hedged item in a fair value hedge if the prepayment option's fair value is affected by changes in the hedged risk, unless the designated layer includes the effect of the related prepayment option when determining the change in the fair value of the hedged item.

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

## Conclusions

HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC is assigned short-term Ba1 & long-term Ba1 estimated rating. HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC prediction model is evaluated with Statistical Inference (ML) and ElasticNet Regression^{1,2,3,4} and it is concluded that the LON:HL. stock is predictable in the short/long term. ** According to price forecasts for 6 Month period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell**

### LON:HL. HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC Financial Analysis*

Rating | Short-Term | Long-Term Senior |
---|---|---|

Outlook* | Ba1 | Ba1 |

Income Statement | Baa2 | B2 |

Balance Sheet | Baa2 | Ba3 |

Leverage Ratios | Baa2 | Ba2 |

Cash Flow | Baa2 | Baa2 |

Rates of Return and Profitability | B1 | Ba1 |

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.

How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

### Prediction Confidence Score

## References

- Bierens HJ. 1987. Kernel estimators of regression functions. In Advances in Econometrics: Fifth World Congress, Vol. 1, ed. TF Bewley, pp. 99–144. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
- R. Rockafellar and S. Uryasev. Conditional value-at-risk for general loss distributions. Journal of Banking and Finance, 26(7):1443 – 1471, 2002
- L. Panait and S. Luke. Cooperative multi-agent learning: The state of the art. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 11(3):387–434, 2005.
- Zou H, Hastie T. 2005. Regularization and variable selection via the elastic net. J. R. Stat. Soc. B 67:301–20
- Thompson WR. 1933. On the likelihood that one unknown probability exceeds another in view of the evidence of two samples. Biometrika 25:285–94
- J. Filar, D. Krass, and K. Ross. Percentile performance criteria for limiting average Markov decision pro- cesses. IEEE Transaction of Automatic Control, 40(1):2–10, 1995.
- ZXhang, Y.X., Haxo, Y.M. and Mat, Y.X., 2023. How is the price of gold determined? (No. Stock Analysis). AC Investment Research.

## Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the prediction methodology for LON:HL. stock?A: LON:HL. stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Statistical Inference (ML) and ElasticNet Regression

Q: Is LON:HL. stock a buy or sell?

A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Sell LON:HL. Stock.

Q: Is HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC stock a good investment?

A: The consensus rating for HARGREAVES LANSDOWN PLC is Sell and is assigned short-term Ba1 & long-term Ba1 estimated rating.

Q: What is the consensus rating of LON:HL. stock?

A: The consensus rating for LON:HL. is Sell.

Q: What is the prediction period for LON:HL. stock?

A: The prediction period for LON:HL. is 6 Month

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