Outlook: Sandstorm Gold Ltd. is assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term Ba2 estimated rating.
Dominant Strategy : Hold
Time series to forecast n: 25 Jun 2023 for 1 Year
Methodology : Inductive Learning (ML)

## Abstract

Sandstorm Gold Ltd. prediction model is evaluated with Inductive Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the SSL:TSX stock is predictable in the short/long term. Inductive learning is a type of machine learning in which the model learns from a set of labeled data and makes predictions about new, unlabeled data. The model is trained on the labeled data and then used to make predictions on new data. Inductive learning is a supervised learning algorithm, which means that it requires labeled data to train. The labeled data is used to train the model to make predictions about new data. There are many different types of inductive learning algorithms, including decision trees, support vector machines, and neural networks. Each type of algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses. According to price forecasts for 1 Year period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold

## Key Points

1. Game Theory
2. Is it better to buy and sell or hold?
3. Market Risk

## SSL:TSX Target Price Prediction Modeling Methodology

We consider Sandstorm Gold Ltd. Decision Process with Inductive Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of SSL:TSX stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.1,2,3,4

F(Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test)5,6,7= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{a1}& {p}_{a2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Inductive Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ 1 Year $∑ i = 1 n a i$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of SSL:TSX stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move

a:Best response for target price

### Inductive Learning (ML)

Inductive learning is a type of machine learning in which the model learns from a set of labeled data and makes predictions about new, unlabeled data. The model is trained on the labeled data and then used to make predictions on new data. Inductive learning is a supervised learning algorithm, which means that it requires labeled data to train. The labeled data is used to train the model to make predictions about new data. There are many different types of inductive learning algorithms, including decision trees, support vector machines, and neural networks. Each type of algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses.

### Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test

The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, also known as the Mann-Whitney U test, is a non-parametric test that is used to compare the medians of two independent samples. It is a rank-based test, which means that it does not assume that the data is normally distributed. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test is calculated by first ranking the data from both samples, and then finding the sum of the ranks for one of the samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test statistic is then calculated by subtracting the sum of the ranks for one sample from the sum of the ranks for the other sample. The p-value for the Wilcoxon rank-sum test is calculated using a table of critical values. The p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

## SSL:TSX Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) for 1 Year

Sample Set: Neural Network
Stock/Index: SSL:TSX Sandstorm Gold Ltd.
Time series to forecast n: 25 Jun 2023 for 1 Year

According to price forecasts for 1 Year period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold

X axis: *Likelihood% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

Y axis: *Potential Impact% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%

## IFRS Reconciliation Adjustments for Sandstorm Gold Ltd.

1. The credit risk on a financial instrument is considered low for the purposes of paragraph 5.5.10, if the financial instrument has a low risk of default, the borrower has a strong capacity to meet its contractual cash flow obligations in the near term and adverse changes in economic and business conditions in the longer term may, but will not necessarily, reduce the ability of the borrower to fulfil its contractual cash flow obligations. Financial instruments are not considered to have low credit risk when they are regarded as having a low risk of loss simply because of the value of collateral and the financial instrument without that collateral would not be considered low credit risk. Financial instruments are also not considered to have low credit risk simply because they have a lower risk of default than the entity's other financial instruments or relative to the credit risk of the jurisdiction within which an entity operates.
2. An entity must look through until it can identify the underlying pool of instruments that are creating (instead of passing through) the cash flows. This is the underlying pool of financial instruments.
3. An entity's business model is determined at a level that reflects how groups of financial assets are managed together to achieve a particular business objective. The entity's business model does not depend on management's intentions for an individual instrument. Accordingly, this condition is not an instrument-by-instrument approach to classification and should be determined on a higher level of aggregation. However, a single entity may have more than one business model for managing its financial instruments. Consequently, classification need not be determined at the reporting entity level. For example, an entity may hold a portfolio of investments that it manages in order to collect contractual cash flows and another portfolio of investments that it manages in order to trade to realise fair value changes. Similarly, in some circumstances, it may be appropriate to separate a portfolio of financial assets into subportfolios in order to reflect the level at which an entity manages those financial assets. For example, that may be the case if an entity originates or purchases a portfolio of mortgage loans and manages some of the loans with an objective of collecting contractual cash flows and manages the other loans with an objective of selling them.
4. The requirements in paragraphs 6.8.4–6.8.8 may cease to apply at different times. Therefore, in applying paragraph 6.9.1, an entity may be required to amend the formal designation of its hedging relationships at different times, or may be required to amend the formal designation of a hedging relationship more than once. When, and only when, such a change is made to the hedge designation, an entity shall apply paragraphs 6.9.7–6.9.12 as applicable. An entity also shall apply paragraph 6.5.8 (for a fair value hedge) or paragraph 6.5.11 (for a cash flow hedge) to account for any changes in the fair value of the hedged item or the hedging instrument.

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

## Conclusions

Sandstorm Gold Ltd. is assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term Ba2 estimated rating. Sandstorm Gold Ltd. prediction model is evaluated with Inductive Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the SSL:TSX stock is predictable in the short/long term. According to price forecasts for 1 Year period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold

### SSL:TSX Sandstorm Gold Ltd. Financial Analysis*

Rating Short-Term Long-Term Senior
Outlook*Ba3Ba2
Income StatementBaa2Baa2
Balance SheetB2Caa2
Leverage RatiosCaa2Baa2
Cash FlowB1B2
Rates of Return and ProfitabilityBaa2B1

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.
How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

### Prediction Confidence Score

Trust metric by Neural Network: 73 out of 100 with 584 signals.

## References

1. Wu X, Kumar V, Quinlan JR, Ghosh J, Yang Q, et al. 2008. Top 10 algorithms in data mining. Knowl. Inform. Syst. 14:1–37
2. Thompson WR. 1933. On the likelihood that one unknown probability exceeds another in view of the evidence of two samples. Biometrika 25:285–94
3. Keane MP. 2013. Panel data discrete choice models of consumer demand. In The Oxford Handbook of Panel Data, ed. BH Baltagi, pp. 54–102. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
4. Knox SW. 2018. Machine Learning: A Concise Introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
5. Vilnis L, McCallum A. 2015. Word representations via Gaussian embedding. arXiv:1412.6623 [cs.CL]
6. Ruiz FJ, Athey S, Blei DM. 2017. SHOPPER: a probabilistic model of consumer choice with substitutes and complements. arXiv:1711.03560 [stat.ML]
7. Bertsimas D, King A, Mazumder R. 2016. Best subset selection via a modern optimization lens. Ann. Stat. 44:813–52
Frequently Asked QuestionsQ: What is the prediction methodology for SSL:TSX stock?
A: SSL:TSX stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Inductive Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test
Q: Is SSL:TSX stock a buy or sell?
A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Hold SSL:TSX Stock.
Q: Is Sandstorm Gold Ltd. stock a good investment?
A: The consensus rating for Sandstorm Gold Ltd. is Hold and is assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term Ba2 estimated rating.
Q: What is the consensus rating of SSL:TSX stock?
A: The consensus rating for SSL:TSX is Hold.
Q: What is the prediction period for SSL:TSX stock?
A: The prediction period for SSL:TSX is 1 Year