Outlook: Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 is assigned short-term B1 & long-term Ba2 estimated rating.
AUC Score : What is AUC Score?
Short-Term Revised :
Time series to forecast n: for 16 Weeks
Hypothesis Testing : Chi-Square
Surveillance : Major exchange and OTC

## Abstract

Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 prediction model is evaluated with Multi-Task Learning (ML) and Chi-Square1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the UNMA stock is predictable in the short/long term. Multi-task learning (MTL) is a machine learning (ML) method in which multiple related tasks are learned simultaneously. This can be done by sharing features and weights between the tasks. MTL has been shown to improve the performance of each task, compared to learning each task independently. According to price forecasts for 16 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Buy ## Key Points

1. What is a prediction confidence?
2. Why do we need predictive models?
3. How useful are statistical predictions?

## UNMA Target Price Prediction Modeling Methodology

We consider Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 Decision Process with Multi-Task Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of UNMA stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.1,2,3,4

F(Chi-Square)5,6,7= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{a1}& {p}_{a2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & ⋮\\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Multi-Task Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ 16 Weeks $∑ i = 1 n a i$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of UNMA stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move

a:Best response for target price

Multi-task learning (MTL) is a machine learning (ML) method in which multiple related tasks are learned simultaneously. This can be done by sharing features and weights between the tasks. MTL has been shown to improve the performance of each task, compared to learning each task independently.

### Chi-Square

A chi-squared test is a statistical hypothesis test that assesses whether observed frequencies in a sample differ significantly from expected frequencies. It is one of the most widely used statistical tests in the social sciences and in many areas of observational research. The chi-squared test is a non-parametric test, meaning that it does not assume that the data is normally distributed. This makes it a versatile tool that can be used to analyze a wide variety of data. There are two main types of chi-squared tests: the chi-squared goodness of fit test and the chi-squared test of independence.

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

## UNMA Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) for 16 Weeks

Sample Set: Neural Network
Stock/Index: UNMA Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058
Time series to forecast: 16 Weeks

According to price forecasts for 16 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Buy

Strategic Interaction Table Legend:

X axis: *Likelihood% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

Y axis: *Potential Impact% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%

### Financial Data Adjustments for Multi-Task Learning (ML) based UNMA Stock Prediction Model

1. Expected credit losses shall be discounted to the reporting date, not to the expected default or some other date, using the effective interest rate determined at initial recognition or an approximation thereof. If a financial instrument has a variable interest rate, expected credit losses shall be discounted using the current effective interest rate determined in accordance with paragraph B5.4.5.
2. An entity may use practical expedients when measuring expected credit losses if they are consistent with the principles in paragraph 5.5.17. An example of a practical expedient is the calculation of the expected credit losses on trade receivables using a provision matrix. The entity would use its historical credit loss experience (adjusted as appropriate in accordance with paragraphs B5.5.51–B5.5.52) for trade receivables to estimate the 12-month expected credit losses or the lifetime expected credit losses on the financial assets as relevant. A provision matrix might, for example, specify fixed provision rates depending on the number of days that a trade receivable is past due (for example, 1 per cent if not past due, 2 per cent if less than 30 days past due, 3 per cent if more than 30 days but less than 90 days past due, 20 per cent if 90–180 days past due etc). Depending on the diversity of its customer base, the entity would use appropriate groupings if its historical credit loss experience shows significantly different loss patterns for different customer segments. Examples of criteria that might be used to group assets include geographical region, product type, customer rating, collateral or trade credit insurance and type of customer (such as wholesale or retail)
3. If the contractual cash flows on a financial asset have been renegotiated or otherwise modified, but the financial asset is not derecognised, that financial asset is not automatically considered to have lower credit risk. An entity shall assess whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition on the basis of all reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort. This includes historical and forwardlooking information and an assessment of the credit risk over the expected life of the financial asset, which includes information about the circumstances that led to the modification. Evidence that the criteria for the recognition of lifetime expected credit losses are no longer met may include a history of up-to-date and timely payment performance against the modified contractual terms. Typically a customer would need to demonstrate consistently good payment behaviour over a period of time before the credit risk is considered to have decreased.
4. However, in some cases, the time value of money element may be modified (ie imperfect). That would be the case, for example, if a financial asset's interest rate is periodically reset but the frequency of that reset does not match the tenor of the interest rate (for example, the interest rate resets every month to a one-year rate) or if a financial asset's interest rate is periodically reset to an average of particular short- and long-term interest rates. In such cases, an entity must assess the modification to determine whether the contractual cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. In some circumstances, the entity may be able to make that determination by performing a qualitative assessment of the time value of money element whereas, in other circumstances, it may be necessary to perform a quantitative assessment.

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

### UNMA Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 Financial Analysis*

Rating Short-Term Long-Term Senior
Outlook*B1Ba2
Income StatementBa1Baa2
Balance SheetCaa2Caa2
Leverage RatiosCBaa2
Cash FlowBaa2B3
Rates of Return and ProfitabilityBaa2Baa2

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.
How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

## Conclusions

Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 is assigned short-term B1 & long-term Ba2 estimated rating. Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 prediction model is evaluated with Multi-Task Learning (ML) and Chi-Square1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the UNMA stock is predictable in the short/long term. According to price forecasts for 16 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Buy

### Prediction Confidence Score

Trust metric by Neural Network: 84 out of 100 with 834 signals.

## References

1. Belsley, D. A. (1988), "Modelling and forecast reliability," International Journal of Forecasting, 4, 427–447.
2. Wu X, Kumar V, Quinlan JR, Ghosh J, Yang Q, et al. 2008. Top 10 algorithms in data mining. Knowl. Inform. Syst. 14:1–37
3. Hill JL. 2011. Bayesian nonparametric modeling for causal inference. J. Comput. Graph. Stat. 20:217–40
4. Imbens G, Wooldridge J. 2009. Recent developments in the econometrics of program evaluation. J. Econ. Lit. 47:5–86
5. R. Howard and J. Matheson. Risk sensitive Markov decision processes. Management Science, 18(7):356– 369, 1972
6. Imbens GW, Lemieux T. 2008. Regression discontinuity designs: a guide to practice. J. Econom. 142:615–35
7. Banerjee, A., J. J. Dolado, J. W. Galbraith, D. F. Hendry (1993), Co-integration, Error-correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-stationary Data. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Frequently Asked QuestionsQ: What is the prediction methodology for UNMA stock?
A: UNMA stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Multi-Task Learning (ML) and Chi-Square
Q: Is UNMA stock a buy or sell?
A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Buy UNMA Stock.
Q: Is Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 stock a good investment?
A: The consensus rating for Unum Group 6.250% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2058 is Buy and is assigned short-term B1 & long-term Ba2 estimated rating.
Q: What is the consensus rating of UNMA stock?
A: The consensus rating for UNMA is Buy.
Q: What is the prediction period for UNMA stock?
A: The prediction period for UNMA is 16 Weeks