**Outlook:**Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. is assigned short-term Caa2 & long-term B1 estimated rating.

**AUC Score :**

**Short-Term Revised**

^{1}:**Dominant Strategy :**Sell

**Time series to forecast n:** for

^{2}

**Methodology :**Ensemble Learning (ML)

**Hypothesis Testing :**Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test

**Surveillance :**Major exchange and OTC

^{1}The accuracy of the model is being monitored on a regular basis.(15-minute period)

^{2}Time series is updated based on short-term trends.

## Summary

Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. prediction model is evaluated with Ensemble Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test^{1,2,3,4}and it is concluded that the PAM stock is predictable in the short/long term. Ensemble learning is a machine learning (ML) technique that combines multiple models to create a single model that is more accurate than any of the individual models. This is done by combining the predictions of the individual models, typically using a voting scheme or a weighted average.

**According to price forecasts for 8 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell**

## Key Points

- Can statistics predict the future?
- What is the use of Markov decision process?
- Decision Making

## PAM Target Price Prediction Modeling Methodology

We consider Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. Decision Process with Ensemble Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of PAM stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.^{1,2,3,4}

F(Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test)

^{5,6,7}= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{\mathrm{a}1}& {p}_{\mathrm{a}2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Ensemble Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ 8 Weeks $\sum _{i=1}^{n}\left({a}_{i}\right)$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of PAM stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move

a:Best response for target price

### Ensemble Learning (ML)

Ensemble learning is a machine learning (ML) technique that combines multiple models to create a single model that is more accurate than any of the individual models. This is done by combining the predictions of the individual models, typically using a voting scheme or a weighted average.### Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test

The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, also known as the Mann-Whitney U test, is a non-parametric test that is used to compare the medians of two independent samples. It is a rank-based test, which means that it does not assume that the data is normally distributed. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test is calculated by first ranking the data from both samples, and then finding the sum of the ranks for one of the samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test statistic is then calculated by subtracting the sum of the ranks for one sample from the sum of the ranks for the other sample. The p-value for the Wilcoxon rank-sum test is calculated using a table of critical values. The p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

## PAM Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell)

**Sample Set:**Neural Network

**Stock/Index:**PAM Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A.

**Time series to forecast:**8 Weeks

**According to price forecasts, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell**

Strategic Interaction Table Legend:

**X axis: *Likelihood%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

**Y axis: *Potential Impact%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

**Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%**

### Financial Data Adjustments for Ensemble Learning (ML) based PAM Stock Prediction Model

- The change in the value of the hedged item determined using a hypothetical derivative may also be used for the purpose of assessing whether a hedging relationship meets the hedge effectiveness requirements.
- For loan commitments, an entity considers changes in the risk of a default occurring on the loan to which a loan commitment relates. For financial guarantee contracts, an entity considers the changes in the risk that the specified debtor will default on the contract.
- The purpose of estimating expected credit losses is neither to estimate a worstcase scenario nor to estimate the best-case scenario. Instead, an estimate of expected credit losses shall always reflect the possibility that a credit loss occurs and the possibility that no credit loss occurs even if the most likely outcome is no credit loss.
- When an entity designates a financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss, it must determine whether presenting in other comprehensive income the effects of changes in the liability's credit risk would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss. An accounting mismatch would be created or enlarged if presenting the effects of changes in the liability's credit risk in other comprehensive income would result in a greater mismatch in profit or loss than if those amounts were presented in profit or loss

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

### PAM Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. Financial Analysis*

Rating | Short-Term | Long-Term Senior |
---|---|---|

Outlook* | Caa2 | B1 |

Income Statement | C | C |

Balance Sheet | Caa2 | B1 |

Leverage Ratios | C | B2 |

Cash Flow | C | Baa2 |

Rates of Return and Profitability | Baa2 | Ba1 |

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.

How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

## Conclusions

Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. is assigned short-term Caa2 & long-term B1 estimated rating. Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. prediction model is evaluated with Ensemble Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test^{1,2,3,4} and it is concluded that the PAM stock is predictable in the short/long term. ** According to price forecasts for 8 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell**

### Prediction Confidence Score

## References

- V. Konda and J. Tsitsiklis. Actor-Critic algorithms. In Proceedings of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 12, pages 1008–1014, 2000
- Swaminathan A, Joachims T. 2015. Batch learning from logged bandit feedback through counterfactual risk minimization. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 16:1731–55
- Zeileis A, Hothorn T, Hornik K. 2008. Model-based recursive partitioning. J. Comput. Graph. Stat. 17:492–514 Zhou Z, Athey S, Wager S. 2018. Offline multi-action policy learning: generalization and optimization. arXiv:1810.04778 [stat.ML]
- Chernozhukov V, Chetverikov D, Demirer M, Duflo E, Hansen C, et al. 2016a. Double machine learning for treatment and causal parameters. Tech. Rep., Cent. Microdata Methods Pract., Inst. Fiscal Stud., London
- Dietterich TG. 2000. Ensemble methods in machine learning. In Multiple Classifier Systems: First International Workshop, Cagliari, Italy, June 21–23, pp. 1–15. Berlin: Springer
- Chow, G. C. (1960), "Tests of equality between sets of coefficients in two linear regressions," Econometrica, 28, 591–605.
- Breiman L. 2001b. Statistical modeling: the two cultures (with comments and a rejoinder by the author). Stat. Sci. 16:199–231

## Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the prediction methodology for PAM stock?A: PAM stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Ensemble Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test

Q: Is PAM stock a buy or sell?

A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Sell PAM Stock.

Q: Is Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. stock a good investment?

A: The consensus rating for Pampa Energia S.A. Pampa Energia S.A. is Sell and is assigned short-term Caa2 & long-term B1 estimated rating.

Q: What is the consensus rating of PAM stock?

A: The consensus rating for PAM is Sell.

Q: What is the prediction period for PAM stock?

A: The prediction period for PAM is 8 Weeks

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