Modelling A.I. in Economics

LON:REDD Stock: Is This the End of the Bull Market?

Outlook: REDDE NORTHGATE PLC is assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term Ba3 estimated rating.
AUC Score : What is AUC Score?
Short-Term Revised1 :
Dominant Strategy : Sell
Time series to forecast n: for Weeks2
Methodology : Transfer Learning (ML)
Hypothesis Testing : Beta
Surveillance : Major exchange and OTC

1The accuracy of the model is being monitored on a regular basis.(15-minute period)

2Time series is updated based on short-term trends.

REDDE NORTHGATE PLC prediction model is evaluated with Transfer Learning (ML) and Beta1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the LON:REDD stock is predictable in the short/long term. Transfer learning is a machine learning (ML) method where a model developed for one task is reused as the starting point for a model on a second task. This can be useful when the second task is similar to the first task, or when there is limited data available for the second task.5 According to price forecasts for 3 Month period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell

Graph 29

Key Points

  1. Is now good time to invest?
  2. Market Outlook
  3. What is statistical models in machine learning?

LON:REDD Stock Price Forecast

We consider REDDE NORTHGATE PLC Decision Process with Transfer Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of LON:REDD stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.1,2,3,4

Sample Set: Neural Network
Time series to forecast: 3 Month

According to price forecasts, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Sell

F(Beta)6,7= p a 1 p a 2 p 1 n p j 1 p j 2 p j n p k 1 p k 2 p k n p n 1 p n 2 p n n X R(Transfer Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ 3 Month r s rs

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of LON:REDD stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move of LON:REDD stock holders

a:Best response for LON:REDD target price

Transfer learning is a machine learning (ML) method where a model developed for one task is reused as the starting point for a model on a second task. This can be useful when the second task is similar to the first task, or when there is limited data available for the second task.5 In statistics, beta (β) is a measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables. It is calculated as the slope of the line of best fit in a regression analysis. Beta can range from -1 to 1, with a value of 0 indicating no relationship between the two variables. A positive beta indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable also increases. A negative beta indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. For example, a study might find that there is a positive relationship between height and weight. This means that taller people tend to weigh more. The beta coefficient for this relationship would be positive.6,7


For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below: 

How do AC Investment Research machine learning (predictive) algorithms actually work?

LON:REDD Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) Strategic Interaction Table

Strategic Interaction Table Legend:

X axis: *Likelihood% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

Y axis: *Potential Impact% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%

Financial Data Adjustments for Transfer Learning (ML) based LON:REDD Stock Prediction Model

  1. Conversely, if changes in the extent of offset indicate that the fluctuation is around a hedge ratio that is different from the hedge ratio that is currently used for that hedging relationship, or that there is a trend leading away from that hedge ratio, hedge ineffectiveness can be reduced by adjusting the hedge ratio, whereas retaining the hedge ratio would increasingly produce hedge ineffectiveness. Hence, in such circumstances, an entity must evaluate whether the hedging relationship reflects an imbalance between the weightings of the hedged item and the hedging instrument that would create hedge ineffectiveness (irrespective of whether recognised or not) that could result in an accounting outcome that would be inconsistent with the purpose of hedge accounting. If the hedge ratio is adjusted, it also affects the measurement and recognition of hedge ineffectiveness because, on rebalancing, the hedge ineffectiveness of the hedging relationship must be determined and recognised immediately before adjusting the hedging relationship in accordance with paragraph B6.5.8.
  2. An example of a fair value hedge is a hedge of exposure to changes in the fair value of a fixed-rate debt instrument arising from changes in interest rates. Such a hedge could be entered into by the issuer or by the holder.
  3. Paragraph 5.7.5 permits an entity to make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income changes in the fair value of an investment in an equity instrument that is not held for trading. This election is made on an instrument-by-instrument (ie share-by-share) basis. Amounts presented in other comprehensive income shall not be subsequently transferred to profit or loss. However, the entity may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. Dividends on such investments are recognised in profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 5.7.6 unless the dividend clearly represents a recovery of part of the cost of the investment.
  4. An entity shall amend a hedging relationship as required in paragraph 6.9.1 by the end of the reporting period during which a change required by interest rate benchmark reform is made to the hedged risk, hedged item or hedging instrument. For the avoidance of doubt, such an amendment to the formal designation of a hedging relationship constitutes neither the discontinuation of the hedging relationship nor the designation of a new hedging relationship.

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.


Rating Short-Term Long-Term Senior
Income StatementBaa2Ba1
Balance SheetCaa2C
Leverage RatiosB2B3
Cash FlowCaa2Ba3
Rates of Return and ProfitabilityBaa2Baa2

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.
How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?


  1. M. Puterman. Markov Decision Processes: Discrete Stochastic Dynamic Programming. Wiley, New York, 1994.
  2. L. Prashanth and M. Ghavamzadeh. Actor-critic algorithms for risk-sensitive MDPs. In Proceedings of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26, pages 252–260, 2013.
  3. Imai K, Ratkovic M. 2013. Estimating treatment effect heterogeneity in randomized program evaluation. Ann. Appl. Stat. 7:443–70
  4. Chernozhukov V, Demirer M, Duflo E, Fernandez-Val I. 2018b. Generic machine learning inference on heteroge- nous treatment effects in randomized experiments. NBER Work. Pap. 24678
  5. Alpaydin E. 2009. Introduction to Machine Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  6. Jorgenson, D.W., Weitzman, M.L., ZXhang, Y.X., Haxo, Y.M. and Mat, Y.X., 2023. S&P 500: Is the Bull Market Ready to Run Out of Steam?. AC Investment Research Journal, 220(44).
  7. Candès E, Tao T. 2007. The Dantzig selector: statistical estimation when p is much larger than n. Ann. Stat. 35:2313–51
Frequently Asked QuestionsQ: What is the prediction methodology for LON:REDD stock?
A: LON:REDD stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Transfer Learning (ML) and Beta
Q: Is LON:REDD stock a buy or sell?
A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Sell LON:REDD Stock.
Q: Is REDDE NORTHGATE PLC stock a good investment?
A: The consensus rating for REDDE NORTHGATE PLC is Sell and is assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term Ba3 estimated rating.
Q: What is the consensus rating of LON:REDD stock?
A: The consensus rating for LON:REDD is Sell.
Q: What is the prediction period for LON:REDD stock?
A: The prediction period for LON:REDD is 3 Month
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