**Outlook:**ABRDN EUROPEAN LOGISTICS INCOME PLC is assigned short-term Baa2 & long-term B1 estimated rating.

**AUC Score :**

**Short-Term Revised**

^{1}:**Dominant Strategy :**Hold

**Time series to forecast n:** for

^{2}

**Methodology :**Inductive Learning (ML)

**Hypothesis Testing :**Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test

**Surveillance :**Major exchange and OTC

^{1}The accuracy of the model is being monitored on a regular basis.(15-minute period)

^{2}Time series is updated based on short-term trends.

## Summary

ABRDN EUROPEAN LOGISTICS INCOME PLC prediction model is evaluated with Inductive Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test^{1,2,3,4}and it is concluded that the LON:ASLI stock is predictable in the short/long term. Inductive learning is a type of machine learning in which the model learns from a set of labeled data and makes predictions about new, unlabeled data. The model is trained on the labeled data and then used to make predictions on new data. Inductive learning is a supervised learning algorithm, which means that it requires labeled data to train. The labeled data is used to train the model to make predictions about new data. There are many different types of inductive learning algorithms, including decision trees, support vector machines, and neural networks. Each type of algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses.

^{5}

**According to price forecasts for 16 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold**

## Key Points

- Inductive Learning (ML) for LON:ASLI stock price prediction process.
- Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test
- What are main components of Markov decision process?
- How accurate is machine learning in stock market?
- Buy, Sell and Hold Signals

## LON:ASLI Stock Price Forecast

We consider ABRDN EUROPEAN LOGISTICS INCOME PLC Decision Process with Inductive Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of LON:ASLI stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.^{1,2,3,4}

**Sample Set:**Neural Network

**Stock/Index:**LON:ASLI ABRDN EUROPEAN LOGISTICS INCOME PLC

**Time series to forecast:**16 Weeks

**According to price forecasts, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Hold**

^{6,7}= $\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{\mathrm{a}1}& {p}_{\mathrm{a}2}& \dots & {p}_{1n}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{j1}& {p}_{j2}& \dots & {p}_{jn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{k1}& {p}_{k2}& \dots & {p}_{kn}\\ & \vdots \\ {p}_{n1}& {p}_{n2}& \dots & {p}_{nn}\end{array}$ X R(Inductive Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ 16 Weeks $R=\left(\begin{array}{ccc}1& 0& 0\\ 0& 1& 0\\ 0& 0& 1\end{array}\right)$

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of LON:ASLI stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move of LON:ASLI stock holders

a:Best response for LON:ASLI target price

Inductive learning is a type of machine learning in which the model learns from a set of labeled data and makes predictions about new, unlabeled data. The model is trained on the labeled data and then used to make predictions on new data. Inductive learning is a supervised learning algorithm, which means that it requires labeled data to train. The labeled data is used to train the model to make predictions about new data. There are many different types of inductive learning algorithms, including decision trees, support vector machines, and neural networks. Each type of algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses.

^{5}The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, also known as the Mann-Whitney U test, is a non-parametric test that is used to compare the medians of two independent samples. It is a rank-based test, which means that it does not assume that the data is normally distributed. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test is calculated by first ranking the data from both samples, and then finding the sum of the ranks for one of the samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test statistic is then calculated by subtracting the sum of the ranks for one sample from the sum of the ranks for the other sample. The p-value for the Wilcoxon rank-sum test is calculated using a table of critical values. The p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.

^{6,7}

For further technical information as per how our model work we invite you to visit the article below:

### LON:ASLI Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) Strategic Interaction Table

Strategic Interaction Table Legend:

**X axis: *Likelihood%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

**Y axis: *Potential Impact%** (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

**Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%**

### Financial Data Adjustments for Inductive Learning (ML) based LON:ASLI Stock Prediction Model

- If any instrument in the pool does not meet the conditions in either paragraph B4.1.23 or paragraph B4.1.24, the condition in paragraph B4.1.21(b) is not met. In performing this assessment, a detailed instrument-byinstrument analysis of the pool may not be necessary. However, an entity must use judgement and perform sufficient analysis to determine whether the instruments in the pool meet the conditions in paragraphs B4.1.23–B4.1.24. (See also paragraph B4.1.18 for guidance on contractual cash flow characteristics that have only a de minimis effect.)
- The following are examples of when the objective of the entity's business model may be achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets. This list of examples is not exhaustive. Furthermore, the examples are not intended to describe all the factors that may be relevant to the assessment of the entity's business model nor specify the relative importance of the factors.
- Despite the requirement in paragraph 7.2.1, an entity that adopts the classification and measurement requirements of this Standard (which include the requirements related to amortised cost measurement for financial assets and impairment in Sections 5.4 and 5.5) shall provide the disclosures set out in paragraphs 42L–42O of IFRS 7 but need not restate prior periods. The entity may restate prior periods if, and only if, it is possible without the use of hindsight. If an entity does not restate prior periods, the entity shall recognise any difference between the previous carrying amount and the carrying amount at the beginning of the annual reporting period that includes the date of initial application in the opening retained earnings (or other component of equity, as appropriate) of the annual reporting period that includes the date of initial application. However, if an entity restates prior periods, the restated financial statements must reflect all of the requirements in this Standard. If an entity's chosen approach to applying IFRS 9 results in more than one date of initial application for different requirements, this paragraph applies at each date of initial application (see paragraph 7.2.2). This would be the case, for example, if an entity elects to early apply only the requirements for the presentation of gains and losses on financial liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 7.1.2 before applying the other requirements in this Standard.
- The assessment of whether an economic relationship exists includes an analysis of the possible behaviour of the hedging relationship during its term to ascertain whether it can be expected to meet the risk management objective. The mere existence of a statistical correlation between two variables does not, by itself, support a valid conclusion that an economic relationship exists.

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

### LON:ASLI ABRDN EUROPEAN LOGISTICS INCOME PLC Financial Analysis*

Rating | Short-Term | Long-Term Senior |
---|---|---|

Outlook* | Baa2 | B1 |

Income Statement | Baa2 | C |

Balance Sheet | Baa2 | Caa2 |

Leverage Ratios | Baa2 | Baa2 |

Cash Flow | Caa2 | Caa2 |

Rates of Return and Profitability | Baa2 | Baa2 |

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.

How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

## References

- K. Tumer and D. Wolpert. A survey of collectives. In K. Tumer and D. Wolpert, editors, Collectives and the Design of Complex Systems, pages 1–42. Springer, 2004.
- H. Kushner and G. Yin. Stochastic approximation algorithms and applications. Springer, 1997.
- Alexander, J. C. Jr. (1995), "Refining the degree of earnings surprise: A comparison of statistical and analysts' forecasts," Financial Review, 30, 469–506.
- White H. 1992. Artificial Neural Networks: Approximation and Learning Theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell
- Efron B, Hastie T, Johnstone I, Tibshirani R. 2004. Least angle regression. Ann. Stat. 32:407–99
- Arora S, Li Y, Liang Y, Ma T. 2016. RAND-WALK: a latent variable model approach to word embeddings. Trans. Assoc. Comput. Linguist. 4:385–99
- Jorgenson, D.W., Weitzman, M.L., ZXhang, Y.X., Haxo, Y.M. and Mat, Y.X., 2023. Tesla Stock: Hold for Now, But Watch for Opportunities. AC Investment Research Journal, 220(44).

## Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the prediction methodology for LON:ASLI stock?A: LON:ASLI stock prediction methodology: We evaluate the prediction models Inductive Learning (ML) and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test

Q: Is LON:ASLI stock a buy or sell?

A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Hold LON:ASLI Stock.

Q: Is ABRDN EUROPEAN LOGISTICS INCOME PLC stock a good investment?

A: The consensus rating for ABRDN EUROPEAN LOGISTICS INCOME PLC is Hold and is assigned short-term Baa2 & long-term B1 estimated rating.

Q: What is the consensus rating of LON:ASLI stock?

A: The consensus rating for LON:ASLI is Hold.

Q: What is the prediction period for LON:ASLI stock?

A: The prediction period for LON:ASLI is 16 Weeks

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