Modelling A.I. in Economics

UPST Stock: A Sinking Ship? (Forecast)

Outlook: Upstart Holdings Inc. Common stock is assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term Ba3 estimated rating.
AUC Score : What is AUC Score?
Short-Term Revised1 :
Dominant Strategy : Speculative Trend
Time series to forecast n: for Weeks2
Methodology : Modular Neural Network (Market Volatility Analysis)
Hypothesis Testing : Logistic Regression
Surveillance : Major exchange and OTC

1The accuracy of the model is being monitored on a regular basis.(15-minute period)

2Time series is updated based on short-term trends.


Summary

Upstart Holdings Inc. Common stock prediction model is evaluated with Modular Neural Network (Market Volatility Analysis) and Logistic Regression1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the UPST stock is predictable in the short/long term. Modular neural networks (MNNs) are a type of artificial neural network that can be used for market volatility analysis. MNNs are made up of multiple smaller neural networks, called modules. Each module is responsible for learning a specific task, such as identifying patterns in data or predicting future price movements. The modules are then combined to form a single neural network that can perform multiple tasks.In the context of market volatility analysis, MNNs can be used to identify patterns in market data that suggest that the market is becoming more or less volatile. This information can then be used to make predictions about future price movements.5 According to price forecasts for 1 Year period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Speculative Trend

Graph 26

Key Points

  1. Modular Neural Network (Market Volatility Analysis) for UPST stock price prediction process.
  2. Logistic Regression
  3. Short/Long Term Stocks
  4. How do you decide buy or sell a stock?
  5. What is prediction in deep learning?

UPST Stock Price Forecast

We consider Upstart Holdings Inc. Common stock Decision Process with Modular Neural Network (Market Volatility Analysis) where A is the set of discrete actions of UPST stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.1,2,3,4


Sample Set: Neural Network
Stock/Index: UPST Upstart Holdings Inc. Common stock
Time series to forecast: 1 Year

According to price forecasts, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Speculative Trend


F(Logistic Regression)6,7= p a 1 p a 2 p 1 n p j 1 p j 2 p j n p k 1 p k 2 p k n p n 1 p n 2 p n n X R(Modular Neural Network (Market Volatility Analysis)) X S(n):→ 1 Year S = s 1 s 2 s 3

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of UPST stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move of UPST stock holders

a:Best response for UPST target price


Modular neural networks (MNNs) are a type of artificial neural network that can be used for market volatility analysis. MNNs are made up of multiple smaller neural networks, called modules. Each module is responsible for learning a specific task, such as identifying patterns in data or predicting future price movements. The modules are then combined to form a single neural network that can perform multiple tasks.In the context of market volatility analysis, MNNs can be used to identify patterns in market data that suggest that the market is becoming more or less volatile. This information can then be used to make predictions about future price movements.5 In statistics, logistic regression is a type of regression analysis used when the dependent variable is categorical. Logistic regression is a probability model that predicts the probability of an event occurring based on a set of independent variables. In logistic regression, the dependent variable is represented as a binary variable, such as "yes" or "no," "true" or "false," or "sick" or "healthy." The independent variables can be continuous or categorical variables.6,7

 

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UPST Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) Strategic Interaction Table

Strategic Interaction Table Legend:

X axis: *Likelihood% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

Y axis: *Potential Impact% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%

Financial Data Adjustments for Modular Neural Network (Market Volatility Analysis) based UPST Stock Prediction Model

  1. An entity that first applies IFRS 17 as amended in June 2020 at the same time it first applies this Standard shall apply paragraphs 7.2.1–7.2.28 instead of paragraphs 7.2.38–7.2.42.
  2. The decision of an entity to designate a financial asset or financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss is similar to an accounting policy choice (although, unlike an accounting policy choice, it is not required to be applied consistently to all similar transactions). When an entity has such a choice, paragraph 14(b) of IAS 8 requires the chosen policy to result in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events and conditions on the entity's financial position, financial performance or cash flows. For example, in the case of designation of a financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss, paragraph 4.2.2 sets out the two circumstances when the requirement for more relevant information will be met. Accordingly, to choose such designation in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2, the entity needs to demonstrate that it falls within one (or both) of these two circumstances.
  3. That the transferee is unlikely to sell the transferred asset does not, of itself, mean that the transferor has retained control of the transferred asset. However, if a put option or guarantee constrains the transferee from selling the transferred asset, then the transferor has retained control of the transferred asset. For example, if a put option or guarantee is sufficiently valuable it constrains the transferee from selling the transferred asset because the transferee would, in practice, not sell the transferred asset to a third party without attaching a similar option or other restrictive conditions. Instead, the transferee would hold the transferred asset so as to obtain payments under the guarantee or put option. Under these circumstances the transferor has retained control of the transferred asset.
  4. An alternative benchmark rate designated as a non-contractually specified risk component that is not separately identifiable (see paragraphs 6.3.7(a) and B6.3.8) at the date it is designated shall be deemed to have met that requirement at that date, if, and only if, the entity reasonably expects the alternative benchmark rate will be separately identifiable within 24 months. The 24-month period applies to each alternative benchmark rate separately and starts from the date the entity designates the alternative benchmark rate as a non-contractually specified risk component for the first time (ie the 24- month period applies on a rate-by-rate basis).

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

UPST Upstart Holdings Inc. Common stock Financial Analysis*

Rating Short-Term Long-Term Senior
Outlook*Ba3Ba3
Income StatementB1Baa2
Balance SheetCCaa2
Leverage RatiosBa3Caa2
Cash FlowBaa2Caa2
Rates of Return and ProfitabilityBaa2Baa2

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.
How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

References

  1. Wooldridge JM. 2010. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  2. M. Sobel. The variance of discounted Markov decision processes. Applied Probability, pages 794–802, 1982
  3. Bickel P, Klaassen C, Ritov Y, Wellner J. 1998. Efficient and Adaptive Estimation for Semiparametric Models. Berlin: Springer
  4. Mnih A, Hinton GE. 2007. Three new graphical models for statistical language modelling. In International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 641–48. La Jolla, CA: Int. Mach. Learn. Soc.
  5. E. van der Pol and F. A. Oliehoek. Coordinated deep reinforcement learners for traffic light control. NIPS Workshop on Learning, Inference and Control of Multi-Agent Systems, 2016.
  6. Arora S, Li Y, Liang Y, Ma T. 2016. RAND-WALK: a latent variable model approach to word embeddings. Trans. Assoc. Comput. Linguist. 4:385–99
  7. Efron B, Hastie T, Johnstone I, Tibshirani R. 2004. Least angle regression. Ann. Stat. 32:407–99
Frequently Asked QuestionsQ: Is UPST stock expected to rise?
A: UPST stock prediction model is evaluated with Modular Neural Network (Market Volatility Analysis) and Logistic Regression and it is concluded that dominant strategy for UPST stock is Speculative Trend
Q: Is UPST stock a buy or sell?
A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Speculative Trend UPST Stock.
Q: Is Upstart Holdings Inc. Common stock stock a good investment?
A: The consensus rating for Upstart Holdings Inc. Common stock is Speculative Trend and is assigned short-term Ba3 & long-term Ba3 estimated rating.
Q: What is the consensus rating of UPST stock?
A: The consensus rating for UPST is Speculative Trend.
Q: What is the forecast for UPST stock?
A: UPST target price forecast: Speculative Trend

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