Modelling A.I. in Economics

VBNK Stock: Future is Bright, but The Road Ahead is Bumpy

Outlook: VersaBank Common Shares is assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba3 estimated rating.
AUC Score : What is AUC Score?
Short-Term Revised1 :
Dominant Strategy : Buy
Time series to forecast n: for Weeks2
Methodology : Inductive Learning (ML)
Hypothesis Testing : Sign Test
Surveillance : Major exchange and OTC

1The accuracy of the model is being monitored on a regular basis.(15-minute period)

2Time series is updated based on short-term trends.


Summary

VersaBank Common Shares prediction model is evaluated with Inductive Learning (ML) and Sign Test1,2,3,4 and it is concluded that the VBNK stock is predictable in the short/long term. Inductive learning is a type of machine learning in which the model learns from a set of labeled data and makes predictions about new, unlabeled data. The model is trained on the labeled data and then used to make predictions on new data. Inductive learning is a supervised learning algorithm, which means that it requires labeled data to train. The labeled data is used to train the model to make predictions about new data. There are many different types of inductive learning algorithms, including decision trees, support vector machines, and neural networks. Each type of algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses.5 According to price forecasts for 8 Weeks period, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Buy

Graph 32

Key Points

  1. Inductive Learning (ML) for VBNK stock price prediction process.
  2. Sign Test
  3. Short/Long Term Stocks
  4. Market Signals
  5. Game Theory

VBNK Stock Price Forecast

We consider VersaBank Common Shares Decision Process with Inductive Learning (ML) where A is the set of discrete actions of VBNK stock holders, F is the set of discrete states, P : S × F × S → R is the transition probability distribution, R : S × F → R is the reaction function, and γ ∈ [0, 1] is a move factor for expectation.1,2,3,4


Sample Set: Neural Network
Stock/Index: VBNK VersaBank Common Shares
Time series to forecast: 8 Weeks

According to price forecasts, the dominant strategy among neural network is: Buy


F(Sign Test)6,7= p a 1 p a 2 p 1 n p j 1 p j 2 p j n p k 1 p k 2 p k n p n 1 p n 2 p n n X R(Inductive Learning (ML)) X S(n):→ 8 Weeks i = 1 n a i

n:Time series to forecast

p:Price signals of VBNK stock

j:Nash equilibria (Neural Network)

k:Dominated move of VBNK stock holders

a:Best response for VBNK target price


Inductive learning is a type of machine learning in which the model learns from a set of labeled data and makes predictions about new, unlabeled data. The model is trained on the labeled data and then used to make predictions on new data. Inductive learning is a supervised learning algorithm, which means that it requires labeled data to train. The labeled data is used to train the model to make predictions about new data. There are many different types of inductive learning algorithms, including decision trees, support vector machines, and neural networks. Each type of algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses.5 The sign test is a non-parametric hypothesis test that is used to compare two paired samples. In a paired sample, each data point in one sample is paired with a data point in the other sample. The pairs are typically related in some way, such as before and after measurements, or measurements from the same subject under different conditions. The sign test is a non-parametric test, which means that it does not assume that the data is normally distributed. The sign test is also a dependent samples test, which means that the data points in each pair are correlated.6,7

 

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VBNK Stock Forecast (Buy or Sell) Strategic Interaction Table

Strategic Interaction Table Legend:

X axis: *Likelihood% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the event will occur.)

Y axis: *Potential Impact% (The higher the percentage value, the more likely the price will deviate.)

Z axis (Grey to Black): *Technical Analysis%

Financial Data Adjustments for Inductive Learning (ML) based VBNK Stock Prediction Model

  1. For a discontinued hedging relationship, when the interest rate benchmark on which the hedged future cash flows had been based is changed as required by interest rate benchmark reform, for the purpose of applying paragraph 6.5.12 in order to determine whether the hedged future cash flows are expected to occur, the amount accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve for that hedging relationship shall be deemed to be based on the alternative benchmark rate on which the hedged future cash flows will be based.
  2. IFRS 15, issued in May 2014, amended paragraphs 3.1.1, 4.2.1, 5.1.1, 5.2.1, 5.7.6, B3.2.13, B5.7.1, C5 and C42 and deleted paragraph C16 and its related heading. Paragraphs 5.1.3 and 5.7.1A, and a definition to Appendix A, were added. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 15.
  3. If a financial instrument is designated in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1 as measured at fair value through profit or loss after its initial recognition, or was previously not recognised, the difference at the time of designation between the carrying amount, if any, and the fair value shall immediately be recognised in profit or loss. For financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income shall immediately be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment.
  4. The methods used to determine whether credit risk has increased significantly on a financial instrument since initial recognition should consider the characteristics of the financial instrument (or group of financial instruments) and the default patterns in the past for comparable financial instruments. Despite the requirement in paragraph 5.5.9, for financial instruments for which default patterns are not concentrated at a specific point during the expected life of the financial instrument, changes in the risk of a default occurring over the next 12 months may be a reasonable approximation of the changes in the lifetime risk of a default occurring. In such cases, an entity may use changes in the risk of a default occurring over the next 12 months to determine whether credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition, unless circumstances indicate that a lifetime assessment is necessary

*International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adjustment process involves reviewing the company's financial statements and identifying any differences between the company's current accounting practices and the requirements of the IFRS. If there are any such differences, neural network makes adjustments to financial statements to bring them into compliance with the IFRS.

VBNK VersaBank Common Shares Financial Analysis*

Rating Short-Term Long-Term Senior
Outlook*B2Ba3
Income StatementCaa2Baa2
Balance SheetCC
Leverage RatiosBa3Baa2
Cash FlowB1C
Rates of Return and ProfitabilityBa2Baa2

*Financial analysis is the process of evaluating a company's financial performance and position by neural network. It involves reviewing the company's financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, as well as other financial reports and documents.
How does neural network examine financial reports and understand financial state of the company?

References

  1. Jorgenson, D.W., Weitzman, M.L., ZXhang, Y.X., Haxo, Y.M. and Mat, Y.X., 2023. Can Neural Networks Predict Stock Market?. AC Investment Research Journal, 220(44).
  2. V. Borkar. A sensitivity formula for the risk-sensitive cost and the actor-critic algorithm. Systems & Control Letters, 44:339–346, 2001
  3. Artis, M. J. W. Zhang (1990), "BVAR forecasts for the G-7," International Journal of Forecasting, 6, 349–362.
  4. Armstrong, J. S. M. C. Grohman (1972), "A comparative study of methods for long-range market forecasting," Management Science, 19, 211–221.
  5. Andrews, D. W. K. (1993), "Tests for parameter instability and structural change with unknown change point," Econometrica, 61, 821–856.
  6. R. Sutton and A. Barto. Introduction to reinforcement learning. MIT Press, 1998
  7. J. Hu and M. P. Wellman. Nash q-learning for general-sum stochastic games. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 4:1039–1069, 2003.
Frequently Asked QuestionsQ: Is VBNK stock expected to rise?
A: VBNK stock prediction model is evaluated with Inductive Learning (ML) and Sign Test and it is concluded that dominant strategy for VBNK stock is Buy
Q: Is VBNK stock a buy or sell?
A: The dominant strategy among neural network is to Buy VBNK Stock.
Q: Is VersaBank Common Shares stock a good investment?
A: The consensus rating for VersaBank Common Shares is Buy and is assigned short-term B2 & long-term Ba3 estimated rating.
Q: What is the consensus rating of VBNK stock?
A: The consensus rating for VBNK is Buy.
Q: What is the forecast for VBNK stock?
A: VBNK target price forecast: Buy

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