**Decision making**

**Neural networks**

**game theory**

**support-vector machÄ±nes**

**solving risk problems**

**understandÄ±ng market news**

In this project, we are developing methods for explaining the predictions made rather than constraining the models themselves to be interpretable. **Artificial neural networks* examine all scholarly research reports on stock predictions in the literature,** determine the most appropriate method for the stock being studied, and publish a new research report with the results and references.

### Methods

Game theory can be applied to the stock market in several ways. One way is to analyze the strategic decision-making of market participants, such as traders, investors, and companies. For example, game theory can be used to understand how traders might make decisions about when to buy or sell a particular stock, or how companies might make decisions about when to issue new stock or buy back existing stock.

Another way that game theory can be applied to the stock market is to analyze the overall market dynamics and how they might affect stock prices. For example, game theory can be used to understand how the actions of individual market participants might influence the overall market and how different market conditions, such as supply and demand, might affect stock prices.

Game theory and neural networks can be used together in a variety of ways. One way to use game theory with neural networks is to apply game-theoretic concepts and techniques to the design and analysis of neural networks.

**We trained this model using Reinforcement Learning from decision functions (game theory). We trained an initial model using supervised fine-tuning to understand the strategic behavior of agents that are trained to interact with each other using neural networks.**

**
To create a reward model for reinforcement learning, we needed to collect test data, which consisted of two or more model responses statistically ranked by quality. To collect this data, we use best-response functions (represent the action that a player will take in response to the actions of the other players.)
**

**Example A:**

Let's assume that social media sentiment analysis is used in the research.

Comments and opinions about the target stock are analyzed by an artificial neural network. Artificial neural network cells with different risk-taking behavior models make buying and selling decisions by making different interpretations like humans. (Artificial neural network cells act like human individuals.) They make their buying and selling decisions rationally in a way that maximizes their benefits. The reaction function of each cell affects the other cell, and game theory is used to determine the dominant strategy.

In game theory, a function is a rule that assigns a value to each possible combination of actions taken by the players in a game. This value can represent the payoff or utility that each player receives for a particular combination of actions.

A game theory function is used to model the interactions and strategic behavior of the players in a game. It helps to predict the outcomes of different strategies and to understand how the players will behave in different situations. The function is based on the assumptions about the preferences and goals of the players, as well as the rules of the game.

There are several types of game theory functions, including payoff functions, utility functions, and best-response functions. Payoff functions represent the payoffs or rewards that each player receives for a particular combination of actions. Utility functions represent the subjective value or utility that each player derives from a particular combination of actions. Best-response functions represent the action that a player will take in response to the actions of the other players.

When the strategy is determined, each cell has a decision. The results are tested statistically by conducting a survey on a sample set consisting of artificial neural network cells.

**Example B:**

Another way to use game theory with neural networks is to use neural networks to model and analyze strategic interactions of investors. Neural networks can be trained to predict the outcomes of different strategies in a game and to understand how investors will behave in different situations. They can also be used to identify the best responses of players to the actions of others, using techniques such as reinforcement learning.

There are several challenges to using game theory with neural networks, including the need to handle uncertainty and incomplete information, and the difficulty of designing and training neural networks to model complex strategic interactions. However, the combination of game theory and neural networks can provide a powerful tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of individuals and groups in strategic settings.

**Example C:**

It's important to note that not all games are win-lose games. Some games, such as cooperation behavior or public goods games, involve players working together to achieve a common goal, rather than competing against each other. In these types of games, the total amount of resources or utility in the game can increase, rather than being fixed.

In game theory, a win-win game, also known as a positive-sum game, is a type of game in which all players can benefit from cooperation and mutual gain. This means that the total amount of resources or utility in the game can increase, rather than being fixed as in a win-lose game.

An example of a win-win game is a negotiation in which two parties are able to reach an agreement that is mutually beneficial. In this case, both parties can gain something from the negotiation, rather than one party winning at the expense of the other.

Win-win games can be analyzed using game theory, which is a branch of mathematics that studies strategic decision-making. Game theory can be used to analyze the optimal strategies for players in win-win games, taking into account the actions and strategies of the other players.

Neural networks can be used to analyze and make decisions in win-win games, as well as in other types of games. In general, neural networks are well-suited to tasks that involve pattern recognition and prediction, and they can be trained to identify patterns in game data and make decisions based on those patterns.

For example, a neural network might be trained to play a win-win game such as up-trend market by analyzing the strategic behavior of agents and the actions of the other players, and making decisions about which moves to make based on this information. In this case, the neural network would be trying to maximize its own gains while also trying to find mutually beneficial outcomes with the other players.

It's important to note that the performance of a neural network in a game will depend on the quality of the data it is trained on and the design of the network itself. Training a neural network to play a game effectively requires a large amount of labeled data and careful design of the network architecture. It's also important to validate the results of the network to ensure that it is making accurate predictions.

### Solving Risk Problems

### Can Neural Network Predict?

### Analysis of Financial Reports and News

*A neural network is a type of machine learning model inspired by the structure and function of the human brain. It is composed of layers of interconnected "neurons," which process and transmit information.

At a high level, a neural network takes in inputs, processes them through hidden layers using weights that are adjusted during training, and produces an output. The hidden layers in a neural network allow it to learn complex patterns and relationships in the data. There are many different types of neural networks, including feedforward neural networks, convolutional neural networks, and recurrent neural networks. Each type of neural network is suited to different types of tasks and can be used in a variety of applications, such as image and speech recognition, natural language processing, and time series forecasting.

Neural networks are trained using large datasets and an optimization algorithm, which adjusts the weights of the network to minimize the error between the predicted output and the desired output. The training process involves iteratively adjusting the weights of the network to reduce this error, and it can be computationally intensive. Once the neural network is trained, it can be used to make predictions or classify new data.

There are many different techniques that can be used in neural networks, and the specific technique used will depend on the nature of the data and the prediction task. Some common neural network techniques include:

Feedforward neural networks: These are the most basic type of neural network, in which information flows through the network in only one direction, from the input layer to the output layer. They are used for tasks such as classification and regression. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs): These are neural networks that are specifically designed to process data that has a grid-like structure, such as images. They are made up of layers of neurons that are organized into "convolutional" and "pooling" layers, which extract features from the data and reduce its dimensionality. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs): These are neural networks that are designed to process sequential data, such as time series or natural language. They are made up of neurons that have "memory," which allows them to incorporate information from previous time steps into their predictions. Autoencoders: These are neural networks that are used for dimensionality reduction and feature learning. They are made up of an encoder and a decoder, which work together to compress the input data into a lower-dimensional representation and then reconstruct the original data from this representation. Generative adversarial networks (GANs): These are neural networks that are used for generating new data that is similar to a training dataset. They are made up of two networks: a generator network that produces new data and a discriminator network that determines whether the data is real or fake. The generator and discriminator networks are trained together, with the generator trying to produce data that is indistinguishable from the real data and the discriminator trying to distinguish the real data from the fake data. These are just a few examples of neural network techniques. There are many other techniques that can be used, depending on the nature of the data and the prediction task.

*Game theory is the study of strategic decision-making. It is a branch of mathematics that is used to analyze the interactions between individuals or groups, each of whom has their own goals and makes decisions based on their perceived best interests. In game theory, a "game" is a situation in which individuals or groups make decisions that affect one another. These decisions can be based on a variety of factors, such as the potential rewards or costs associated with each choice.

Game theory is used to analyze and understand the behavior of individuals or groups in such situations and to predict the outcomes of their interactions.There are many different types of games in game theory, including cooperative games, where players can form alliances and make decisions together, and non-cooperative games, where players act independently. Game theory is used in a wide range of fields, including economics, political science, and biology, to understand and model strategic decision-making. It is also used in fields such as computer science and artificial intelligence to develop algorithms for decision-making in situations where multiple parties are involved.

*In game theory, a dominant strategy is a strategy that is always the best choice for a player, regardless of the strategies chosen by the other player or players. A player who has a dominant strategy will always choose it, because it gives them the highest payoff regardless of what the other players do.